An Electrochemical Sensor for Hydrazine Based on In Situ Grown Cobalt Hexacyanoferrate Nanostructured Film
An Electrochemical Sensor for Hydrazine Based on In Situ Grown Cobalt Hexacyanoferrate Nanostructured Film
Journal of Electrochemical Science and Technology. 2016. Dec, 7(4): 277-285
Copyright © 2016, The Korean Electrochemical Society
  • Received : September 23, 2016
  • Accepted : October 10, 2016
  • Published : December 31, 2016
Export by style
Cited by
About the Authors
Inhak Kang
Woo-seung Shin
Shanmugam Manivannan
Yeji Seo
Kyuwon Kim

There is a growing demand for simple, cost-effective, and accurate analytical tools to determine the concentrations of biological and environmental compounds. In this study, a stable electroactive thin film of cobalt hexacyanoferrate (Cohcf) was prepared as an in situ chemical precipitant using electrostatic adsorption of Co 2+ on a silicate sol-gel matrix (SSG)-modified indium tin oxide electrode pre-adsorbed with [Fe(CN) 6 ] 3− ions. The modified electrode was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and electrochemical techniques. Electrocatalytic oxidation of hydrazine on the modified electrode was studied. An electrochemical sensor for hydrazine was constructed on the SSG-Cohcf-modified electrode. The oxidation peak currents showed a linear relationship with the hydrazine concentration. This study provides insight into the in situ growth and stability behavior of Cohcf nanostructures and has implications for the design and development of advanced electrode materials for fuel cells and sensor applications.
1. Introduction
Metal hexacyanoferrates are an important class of insoluble mixed-valence polynuclear compounds; they are widely used to prepare chemically modified electrodes [1 , 2] because they can produce well-characterized electroactive films with properties similar to those of redox and ion-exchange polymers [3 , 4] . The use of metal hexacyanoferrates in the form of thin films to enhance the interfacial properties of solid electrodes has been the focus of much interest over the past three decades [5 , 6] . Such thin solid films are widely used in many applications, such as electrochemical sensors, electrocatalysts, electrochromic display devices, and supercapacitors [7 - 11] . Furthermore, among various electron transfer mediators, metal hexacyanoferrates are preferred because their redox reactions can proceed without dissolution of the material, as the ion diffusion maintains charge balance inside the material. Cobalt hexacyanoferrate (Cohcf) is an analog of Prussian blue and is of particular interest owing to its electrochromic properties [11] , reversible photo induced magnetization [12] , and decent catalytic activity [13 , 14] . The redox processes of metal hexacyanoferrates are coupled with insertion and release of an alkali metal cation to ensure electro neutrality during the redox reaction [15] . In particular, Cohcf films are reportedly capable of showing cation (K + , Na + )-dependent electrochromic and thermochromic behavior, indicating that Cohcf is unique among metal hexacyanoferrates.
Environmental impacts caused by hydrazine (N 2 H 4 ) accumulation and contaminations are significant concerns in terms of human health. Monitoring of variations in the concentration of N 2 H 4 is essential to understanding its biogeochemical processes in aquatic environments and to developing better strategies for water quality management, waste water treatment, and food industry processes. N 2 H 4 is widely used as a starting material in the production of insecticides, herbicides, pesticides, dyestuffs, and explosives, as well as in the preparation of several pharmaceutical derivatives [16] . N 2 H 4 is also an ideal fuel for direct fuel cell systems, as its electrooxidation process does not suffer from any poisoning effects [17 - 21] . In addition, the maximum recommended level of hydrazine in trade effluents is 1 ppm [22] ; therefore, a sensitive method is required for its reliable measurement.
Here we present a stable electroactive thin solid film of Cohcf prepared using two-step electroless fabrication [23] . Electrostatic adsorption of Co 2+ on an amine-functionalized silicate sol-gel matrix (SSG)-modified indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode preadsorbed with [Fe(CN) 6 ] 3− ions was used to grow the in situ chemical precipitant Cohcf. The synthesis and stabilization of nanostructures (NSs) embedded in the SSG have the advantages of single-step preparation, uniform distribution of nanometer-sized particles, and versatility of matrix forms (sols, gels, films, and monoliths) [24] . The resulting films are conductive and inorganic; furthermore, an SSG possessing an active redox center makes them possible electrocatalysts toward oxidation of N 2 H 4 . In this approach, the amine functional groups of the SSG essentially serve as nucleation sites for in situ growth of Cohcf NSs. Moreover, this well-organized thin solid film of SSG-Cohcf demonstrates great potential for further applications in future photo magnetic devices, sensors, catalysts, and energy storage electrodes.
2. Experimental section
- 2. 1. Materials and methods
N -[3-(trimethoxysilyl) propyl]diethylenetriamine (the silane monomer used to prepare the SSG) was received from Sigma-Aldrich. K 3 [Fe(CN) 6 ], CoCl 2 , and N 2 H 4 were obtained from Dae-Jung Chemicals. All the chemicals were of analytical grade and were used as received. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images were recorded using a JEOL JSM-7800F instrument. X-ray diffraction (XRD) profiles were recorded using a SmartLab (Rigaku) instrument. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) spectra were recorded using an ULVAC-PHI 5000 Versa Probe instrument. ITO (dimension: 2 × 1 cm 2 ) and its modified forms were used as a working electrode. A Pt wire served as a counter electrode, and Ag/AgCl (in 3 M NaCl solution) was used as a reference electrode. All the electrochemical experiments were conducted in a single-compartment three-electrode cell using an Ivium Technologies electrochemical work station. Nitrogen gas (N 2 ) was bubbled for 30 min before each experiment.
- 2.2 Synthesis of SSG solution
A homogeneous SSG solution was prepared [25] by adding 5 μL of 1 M silane monomer to 5 mL of aqueous solution under vigorous stirring, and the stirring was continued for another 60 min.
- 2.3 Fabrication of ITO/SSG-Cohcf electrode
A known volume (50 μL) of SSG solution was drop-cast on an ITO electrode that had been pretreated with piranha solution (3:1, H 2 SO 4 :H 2 O 2 ; extreme care should be taken while handling ) and dried at 37°C. The dried ITO/SSG electrode was soaked in an acidic solution (0.01 M HCl) of 0.001 M [Fe(CN) 6 ] 3− ions for 30 min, taken out, and rinsed in double-distilled water. Next, it was soaked in a solution containing Co 2+ ions (0.001 M) for another 30 min, taken out, rinsed in double-distilled water, and allowed to dry. The process is illustrated schematically in Fig. 1 .
PPT Slide
Lager Image
Schematic representation of SSG-Cohcf electrode fabrication.
- 2.4 Electrocatalysis and sensor
N 2 H 4 electrooxidation at the ITO/SSG-Cohcf electrode was studied by recording cyclic voltammograms. During the measurements, 1 mM N 2 H 4 was added to the electrolyte, which consisted of 0.1 M phosphate buffer solution (PBS) (pH 7.0). The experiments were performed at room temperature (25°C) in a potential window of −0.2 to 1.2 V. The N 2 H 4 sensors were experimentally examined using linear sweep voltammograms (LSVs).
3. Results and Discussion
- 3.1 Surface characterization of the modified electrode
The surface modification process offers a platform to alter the basic structure of underlying substrates; therefore, the physical and chemical properties of materials can be tuned for use as electrodes with applications in sensing and catalysis. Fig. 2A-F illustrates that a stable electroactive Cohcf thin film was successfully fabricated by electrostatic adsorption of Co 2+ on the ITO/SSG electrode pre adsorbed with [Fe(CN) 6 ] 3− ions as an in situ chemical precipitant. The morphology of the Cohcf NSs shown in Fig. 2F demonstrates that the NSs are highly porous and interconnected. In addition, Cohcf is a polynuclear mixed-valence coordination compound, and its stoichiometry may vary depending on the preparation methodology, which could affect its electrochemical behavior. Fig. 2G-I summarizes the SEM-energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis of the ITO/SSG-Cohcf electrode and confirms the elemental composition and successful fabrication of Cohcf NSs by the electroless method. Furthermore, XRD (Fig. S1) and XPS ( Fig. 3 ) analyses were performed to determine the crystallinity and identify the chemical components, respectively. As can be seen in Fig. S1, the peaks at 26.9, 35.7, 38.9, 53.8, and 56.2° were assigned to the (2 2 0), (4 0 0), (4 2 0), (6 0 0), and (6 2 0) planes, respectively, of the face-centered cubic Cohcf crystallographic structures [26] . As shown in Fig. 3 , the core-level high-resolution scan mode revealed three metal ions (Co, Fe, and K) and two elements (N and Si). In addition, it can be inferred that Cohcf was interconnected and stabilized by the SSG.
PPT Slide
Lager Image
(A-F) SEM images and (G-I) EDX analysis of SSG-Cohcf electrode.
PPT Slide
Lager Image
XPS analysis of the ITO/SSG-Cohcf electrode.
The Cohcf NSs were successfully grown in situ at the ITO/SSG electrode via the electrostatic interaction between the irreversibly adsorbed [Fe(CN) 6 ] 3− and Co 2+ ions. Furthermore, the Cohcf NSs ranged in size from 100 to 200 nm ( Fig. 2F ) and were found to be densely packed throughout the ITO/SSG electrode, indicating a high amount Cohcf NS loading on the electrode surface. In the present approach, the amine groups of the SSG essentially served as nucleation sites [27] for the growth of Cohcf NSs. In addition, the highly porous 3D SSG acts as a host for accommodating the in situ grown Cohcf NSs. The electrostatic interaction between the positively charged SSG (due to the protonated NH 3 + ) and the negatively charged [Fe(CN) 6 ] 3− ions present in the acidic medium facilitates the irreversible adsorption of [Fe(CN) 6 ] 3− ions at the ITO/SSG electrode [23] . The NH 2 groups of the SSG were protonated when the electrode was dipped in an acidic solution containing [Fe(CN) 6 ] 3− ions. Next, the ITO/SSG-[Fe(CN) 6 ] 3− electrode was dipped in a solution containing Co 2+ ions, which led to in situ growth of Cohcf NSs at the SSG; the growth reached saturation within 30 min.
- 3.2 Growth and stability of the modified electrode
The electrochemical characteristics of Cohcf are well known, and it is widely assumed to be a suitable material for chemically modified electrodes for various applications. Fig. 4A shows the cyclic voltammogram of the modified electrode at a scan rate of 50 mV/s within a potential window of −0.2 to 1.2 V vs. a Ag/AgCl electrode. Two pronounced redox peaks are located at ~0.5 V. They correspond to the redox reaction of Fe II/III in Cohcf, which is accompanied by K + ions entering and exiting the cyanobridged metallic framework to maintain local charge neutrality [28] . The symmetry of each peak indicates high reaction reversibility. Equation (1) describes the in situ growth of Cohcf NSs on the ITO/SSG electrode during the electrostatic interaction between the irreversibly adsorbed [Fe(CN) 6 ] 3− and Co 2+ ions. Cohcf can exhibit two different stoichiometric forms [15] [Eqs. (2) and (3)]; hence, in its solid state, it can accept K + ions from the electrolyte to maintain electrical neutrality. This tendency toward K + ion insertion led to the appearance of the two redox peaks for the Cohcf NSs (Peak I: Co 1.5 (II) [Fe (III) (CN) 6 ] and Peak II: KCo (II) [Fe (III) (CN) 6 ]).
PPT Slide
Lager Image
(A, B) CV curves of ITO/SSG-Cohcf electrode in 0.1 M KCl obtained at a scan rate of 50 mV/s. (A) Cycle 1 and (B) (a-e) cycles 1-100 at intervals of 25 cycles, from outside to inside). (C) CV curves and (D) corresponding calibration plots of ITO/SSG-Cohcf electrode in 0.1 M KCl at various scan rates (30, 50, 80, 160, 200, 250, and 300 mV/s, from inside to outside).
PPT Slide
Lager Image
PPT Slide
Lager Image
PPT Slide
Lager Image
Furthermore, the operational stability of the modified electrode is observed by recording 100 potential cyclic voltammetry (CV) cycles at a scan rate of 50 mV/s ( Fig. 4B ). Clearly, the current of peak I remains almost the same, whereas peak II exhibits a considerable current decrease in the forward scan and a negative shift in the backward scan. This finding can be explained as follows: the SSG offers good protection in terms of encapsulating the Cohcf NSs, and, during the potential CV cycles, insertion of K + ions leads to this typical redox behavior of peak II. To apply this material in device fabrication, good performance stability is the key factor to obtaining the desired efficiency; thus, the cycling stability of the modified electrode was examined by repetitive potential CV cycling. After 100 potential cycles, 92% of the original peak current (peak I) was retained, demonstrating the high chemical and structural robustness of the Cohcf NSs on the modified electrode. This improved operational stability, combined with the ease of preparation, makes it a highly promising candidate for device fabrication.
The effect of the scan rate ( ν ) on the peak currents ( i pa and i pc ) was investigated in the range of 30-300 mV/s ( Fig. 4C ). As the scan rate increased, two anodic and cathodic peaks merged completely, and the peak-to-peak separation of the redox pairs tended to increase, suggesting a limitation in the chargetransfer kinetics. In addition, the overlap between the two oxidative and reductive peaks was probably due to chemical interactions between the electrolyte species with cobalt ions at higher scan rates. The corresponding calibration plots ( Fig. 4D ) between the peak currents and the scan rates ( ν ) for the redox reactions are linear. This observation clearly suggests that Cohcf NSs on the modified electrode, which nucleated throughout the 3D SSG and grew in the pores of the SSG, became SSG-encapsulated and interconnected. In addition, Cohcf NSs acted as charge transport carriers between the substrate and the solution interface.
Fig. 5A and B compares the SEM images before and after 100 potential CV cycles; structural deformation due to the insertion of K + ions from the electrolyte into the Cohcf NSs is clearly visible. The SEM-EDX analysis confirms the elemental composition after 100 CV cycles. Furthermore, from the cyclic voltammogram presented in Fig. 4A , the concentration of Cohcf NSs at the electrode surface ( Γ ) was calculated using Eq. (4) [23]:
PPT Slide
Lager Image
(A,B) SEM images and (C) EDX analysis of SSG-Cohcf electrode (A) before and (B,C) after 100 potential CV cycles.
PPT Slide
Lager Image
where Q is the charge equivalent to the reduction peak (around 0.5 V), n is the number of electrons involved in the redox process, F is the Faraday constant, and A is the electrode area. The surface concentration of incorporated Cohcf was calculated as 2.0314 × 10 −8 mol/cm 2 . This larger surface coverage can provide more electrocatalytic sites.
- 3.3 Electrooxidation of N2H4
N 2 H 4 is a precise analyte that has high oxidation overpotential; hence, it cannot be oxidized on bare electrodes. In this study, we investigated the electrochemical features of N 2 H 4 on the fabricated modified electrodes and the bare electrode (see summary in Figs. 6 - 8 ). Fig. 6A shows the CV curves of the Cohcf-NS-modified electrodes in 0.1 M PBS (pH 7.0) in the absence (a) and in the presence (b) of N 2 H 4 . A comparison of these two CV curves indicates the vital role of Cohcf NSs in the film, i.e., electrochemically generation (at 0.52 V) upon oxidation of N 2 H 4 . An increase of ca. 23.10 μA in the current in the anodic region corresponding to oxidation of FeII to Fe III (first peak at 0.52 V) on the ITO/SSG-Cohcf electrodes is observed when N 2 H 4 is added. The increased current response due to the addition of N 2 H 4 in the anodic region can be attributed to diffusion of N 2 H 4 toward the electrode surface, and the current electrochemically reduces the produced Fe III . In addition, the Fe II is regenerated by N 2 H 4 during the potential sweep; consequently, the anodic current increases. As shown in Fig. 6B , the electrochemical responses toward N 2 H 4 are almost negligible on bare ITO (a) and ITO/SSG (b) electrodes. In contrast, a well-behaved anodic wave formed at a peak potential of 0.52 V on the ITO/SSG-Cohcf electrode ( Fig. 6A ). In addition, in the absence of the Cohcf NSs, N 2 H 4 was oxidized around 0.8-0.9 V on the bare ITO and ITO/SSG electrodes, whereas a large decrease in the overpotential can be observed on the ITO/SSG-Cohcf electrode. This distinct electrochemical response (“b” in Fig. 6A ) at the reduced overpotential for N 2 H 4 is facilitated by the highly porous and interconnected Cohcf NSs on the modified electrode. We further investigated the electrochemical features of N 2 H 4 on the ITO/SSG-Cohcf electrode by recording CV curves at various scan rates (30-300 mV/s) ( Fig. 7 ). With increasing scan rate, the oxidation peak potential shifted in the positive direction, and the oxidation current was also enhanced. A plot of the anodic peak current versus the square root of the scan rate ( ν 1/2 ) shows a linear relationship, revealing a diffusioncontrolled process [29] . In addition, the peak potential was directly proportional to the natural logarithm of the scan rate (ln ν ), revealing a kinetic limitation in the reactions between the redox sites of the electron transfer mediator (Cohcf) and N 2 H 4 [30] . LSVs were obtained for the ITO/SSG-Cohcf electrode by adding 100 μM N 2 H 4 ; the results are summarized in Fig. 8 . At the sensor electrode, the Cohcf NSs exhibited a stable response, and the catalytic current was proportional to the concentration of N 2 H 4 . A linear dependence of the oxidation peak current due to N 2 H 4 addition was obtained with a correlation coefficient ( R 2 ) of 0.971, and the sensitivity was 0.187 μA/μM.
PPT Slide
Lager Image
(A) Comparison of CV curves at ITO/SSG-Cohcf electrode in the (a) absence and (b) presence of 1 mM N2H4. (B) CV curves obtained on bare ITO, ITO/SSG, and ITO/SSG-Cohcf electrodes in the presence of 1 mM N2H4. Conditions: supporting electrolyte, 0.1 M PBS (pH 7.0); scan rate, 50 mV/s.
PPT Slide
Lager Image
(A) Electrochemical response of ITO/SSG-Cohcf electrode to 1 mM N2H4 at scan rates of 30, 50, 80, 120, 160, 200, 250, and 300 mV/s. (B) Peak current as a function of the square root of the scan rate, and (C) linear relationship of peak potential against the natural logarithm of the scan rate.
PPT Slide
Lager Image
(A) LSVs recorded on the ITO/SSG-Cohcf electrode in 0.1 M PBS (pH 7.0) for (a) no N2H4 and (b) 100 μM, (c) 200 μM, (d) 300 μM, (e) 400 μM, (f) 500 μM, (g) 600 μM, and (h) 700 μM N2H4. (B) Corresponding calibration plot.
4. Conclusions
In summary, a facile approach was successfully developed for in situ growth of Cohcf NSs on an electrode surface via electrostatic interaction. Their structural features facilitate the passage of chargebalancing ions from the electrolyte (K + ) in and out of the framework and thus advance the electrochemical redox reaction of Cohcf. Owing to its chemical and structural stability, an ITO/SSG-Cohcf electrode exhibited impressive potential cycling stability. Given the ease of preparation and cost-effectiveness, Cohcf and other Prussian blue analogs may hold great promise for future energy storage applications. We further analyzed the electrochemical behavior and electrocatalytic ability of the modified electrode toward N 2 H 4 . Electrooxidation of N 2 H 4 was observed at a reduced overpotential and was attributed to the synergistic catalytic effect resulting from the combination of Cohcf and the SSG. Linear sweep voltammetry was used to quantify the amount of N 2 H 4 . This method of fabricating Cohcf NSs has great relevance to the preparation of films that may find applications in enzymeless biosensors, fuel cells, future photomagnetic devices, and energy systems.
Supporting InformationXRD analysis of SSG-Cohcf electrode
This research was supported by Post-Doctor Research Program(2015) through Incheon National University(INU), Incheon, Republic of Korea.
Liu S. Q. , Chen H. Y. 2002 Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry 528 190 - 195    DOI : 10.1016/S0022-0728(02)00850-1
Pournaghi-Azar M. H. , Dastangoo H. 2002 Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry 523 (1) 26 - 33    DOI : 10.1016/S0022-0728(02)00678-2
Wang P. , Jing X. , Zhang W. , Zhu G. 2001 Journal of Solid State Electrochemistry 5 (6) 369 - 374    DOI : 10.1007/s100080000166
Cui X. , Hong L. , Lin X. 2002 Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry 526 (1) 115 - 124    DOI : 10.1016/S0022-0728(02)00724-6
Vinu Mohan A. M. , Rambabu G. , Aswini K. K. , Biju V. M. 2014 Thin Solid Films 565 207 - 214    DOI : 10.1016/j.tsf.2014.06.018
Chen S. M. 1998 Electrochimica Acta 43 (21) 3359 - 3369    DOI : 10.1016/S0013-4686(98)00074-7
Deng K. , Li C. , Qiu X. , Zhou J. , Hou Z. 2015 Electrochimica Acta 174 1096 - 1103    DOI : 10.1016/j.electacta.2015.06.104
Luo X. , Pan J. , Pan K. , Yu Y. , Zhong A. , Wei S. , Li J. , Shi J. , Li X. 2015 Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry 745 80 - 87    DOI : 10.1016/j.jelechem.2015.03.017
Zhao F. , Wang Y. , Xu X. , Liu Y. , Song R. , Lu G. , Li Y. 2014 ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces 6 (14) 11007 - 11012    DOI : 10.1021/am503375h
Wessells C. D. , Huggins R. A. , Cui Y. 2011 Nature Communications 2 550 -    DOI : 10.1038/ncomms1563
Kulesza P. J. , Malik M. A. , Miecznikowski A. K. , Wolkiewicz A. , Zamponi S. , Berrettoni M. , Marassi R. 1996 Journal of the Electrochemical Society 143 (1) L10 - L12    DOI : 10.1149/1.1836374
Bleuzen A. , Lomenech C. , Escax V. , Villain F. , Varret F. , Cartier Dit Moulin C. , Verdaguer M. 2000 Journal of the American Chemical Society 122 (28) 6648 - 6652    DOI : 10.1021/ja000348u
Cartier Dit Moulin C. , Villain F. , Bleuzen A. , Arrio M. A. , Sainctavit P. , Lomenech C. , Escax V. , Baudelet F. , Dartyge E. , Gallet J. J. , Verdaguer M. 2000 Journal of the American Chemical Society 122 (28) 6653 - 6658    DOI : 10.1021/ja000349m
Eftekhari A. 2003 Mikrochimica Acta 141 (1-2) 15 - 21    DOI : 10.1007/s00604-002-0928-2
Thangavel S. , Ramaraj R. 2009 Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology 9 (4) 2353 - 2363    DOI : 10.1166/jnn.2009.SE12
Du J. , Wang Y. , Zhou X. , Xue Z. , Liu X. , Sun K. , Lu X. 2010 Journal of Physical Chemistry C 114 (35) 14786 - 14793    DOI : 10.1021/jp104796c
Crespilho F. N. , Zucolotto V. , Brett C. M. A. , Oliveira Jr O. N. , Nart F. C. 2006 Journal of Physical Chemistry B 110 (35) 17478 - 17483    DOI : 10.1021/jp062098v
Ahmadalinezhad A. , Kafi A. K. M. , Chen A. 2009 Electrochemistry Communications 11 (10) 2048 - 2051    DOI : 10.1016/j.elecom.2009.08.048
Chang G. , Luo Y. , Lu W. , Hu J. , Liao F. , Sun X. 2011 Thin Solid Films 519 (18) 6130 - 6134    DOI : 10.1016/j.tsf.2011.03.049
Yi Q. , Niu F. , Yu W. 2011 Thin Solid Films 519 (10) 3155 - 3161    DOI : 10.1016/j.tsf.2010.12.241
Durga S. , Ponmani1 K. , Kiruthika S. , Muthukumaran B. 2014 J. Electrochem. Sci. Technol 5 (3) 73 - 81    DOI : 10.5229/JECST.2014.5.3.73
Amlathe S. , Gupta V. K. 1988 Analyst 113 (9) 1481 - 1483    DOI : 10.1039/an9881301481
Manivannan S. , Kang I. , Kim K. 2016 Langmuir 32 (7) 1890 - 1898    DOI : 10.1021/acs.langmuir.5b04278
Manivannan S. , Ramaraj R. 2012 Journal of Nanoparticle Research 14 (6) 1 - 11
Manivannan S. , Kim K. 2016 Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry 776 82 - 92    DOI : 10.1016/j.jelechem.2016.06.009
Choudhury S. , Dey G. K. , Yakhmi J. V. 2003 Journal of Crystal Growth 258 (1) 197 - 203    DOI : 10.1016/S0022-0248(03)01513-6
Manivannan S. , Ramaraj R. 2013 Journal of nanoparticle research 15 (10) 1 - 13
Zhao F. , Wang Y. , Xu X. , Liu Y. , Song R. , Lu G. , Li Y. 2014 ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 6 (14) 11007 - 11012    DOI : 10.1021/am503375h
Heli H. , Eskandari I. , Sattarahmady N. , Moosavi-Movahedi A. A. 2012 Electrochimica Acta 77 294 - 301    DOI : 10.1016/j.electacta.2012.06.014
Naeemy A. 2015 Journal of Electrochemical Science and Technology 6 (3) 88 - 94    DOI : 10.5229/JECST.2015.6.3.88